My research falls into the main topic areas listed below (with the exception of some collaborations and side projects). Within each area I use integrative techniques that span different levels of organization. I study trait evolution starting from the phenotype, where I try to understand the selective pressures shaping that trait, down to the developmental constraints involved in producing traits to the genotype, or genetic regions responsible for coding that trait. I also ask questions across time scales, ranging from broad evolutionary patterns found in birds or beyond, to specific signatures of evolution observed over several generations (see example figure below). My research uses and builds the ornithology collection at NHMLA.